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Clinical Research Unit on Children's Psychosocial Maladjustment

Longitudinal and Experimental Study of Low Socioeconomic Boys in Montréal (ÉLEM)

We now know that juvenile delinquency is the result of a lengthy developmental process. Preschool behavior already indicates the probable developmental path of a child. Delinquency prevention efforts must therefore rely on knowledge of the development of antisocial behaviors, as well as knowledge of risk and protection factors. The ÉLEM has been following the development of a large sample of boys from disadvantaged areas in order to contribute to the prevention of delinquency.


  1. To identify, from kindergarten, the predictors of adjustment problems among boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) families.
  2. To describe the development of behavior problems from kindergarten to adulthood.
  3. To evaluate a program aimed at the prevention of the development of behavior problems among boys from disadvantaged areas.

Subjects (Sample)

The sample consists of 1,037 boys of Canadian-born, French-speaking parents who attended kindergarten in a disadvantaged area of Montreal in 1984. After the first evaluation in kindergarten, annual evaluations have been made starting at age 10. These evaluations were made by parents, teachers, classmates and the children themselves. Hormonal, anthropometric, psychophysiological, neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluations as well as laboratory interventions and observations of sub-samples were also performed.

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Updated on 10/14/2014
Created on 10/14/2014
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